Diet for thyroid diseases


Diseases of the thyroid gland are quite common in our time, and they are more common in women.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), thyroid disease ranks second after diabetes, 1.5 billion people face the risk of developing iodine deficiency disorders, and the increase in the number of thyroid diseases in the world is 5% per year. In our country, the situation is also far from ideal. According to various data, from 15 to 40% of the Russian population suffer from pathologies associated with the thyroid gland, while in some regions the number of such patients is close to 95%.

Of course, these diseases require treatment from an endocrinologist, and this treatment should be long and permanent. However, it is not only in taking pills, diet plays an important role here. After all, there are products that enhance the activity of the thyroid gland, and there are those that oppress. And if at a reduced thyroid function to use such "depressing" foods, or when elevated, include seafood with a high iodine content in the diet, then no medication will help.

Diet for thyroid diseases

The book will provide general information about the structure and functioning of the thyroid gland, diets with increased and decreased thyroid function, as well as the principles of nutrition for goiter (enlarged thyroid gland), which can develop with reduced and normal gland function.

General information

The thyroid gland belongs to the endocrine glands and therefore is part of the endocrine system. Her job is to synthesize a number of hormones necessary to maintain the activity of the body.

The structure and function of the thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is a symmetric organ that consists of two lobes and an isthmus. The right and left lobes are adjacent directly to the trachea, the isthmus is located on the anterior surface of the trachea. That is why doctors test it on the front surface of the throat. In the normal state, the mass of the thyroid gland is from 20 to 65 g, and the size of the lobes depends on the sex and age of the person. During puberty, an increase in the size and mass of the thyroid gland occurs, and in old age - its decrease. In women, during pregnancy, there is also a temporary increase in the size of the thyroid gland, which disappears within 6-12 months after delivery.

In the thyroid gland, two iodine-containing hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), and one peptide hormone, calcitonin, are synthesized. Also in the thyroid tissue accumulates the amino acid tyrosine, which is stored in the form of thyroglobulin protein (a building material for the synthesis of thyroid hormones).

Thyroid hormones are very important. With their direct participation, the main metabolic processes in tissues and organs occur; the formation of new cells and the genetically programmed death of old cells. These hormones maintain a constant body temperature and energy production (the so-called calorific effect). Thyroid hormones regulate the consumption of oxygen by tissues, the processes of oxidation and energy production, and also control the formation and neutralization of free radicals. Throughout life, thyroid-stimulating hormones affect the mental, mental and physical development of a person. Deficit of hormones in early childhood leads to growth retardation, can cause bone tissue diseases, and their deficiency during pregnancy significantly increases the risk of cretinism of the unborn child due to underdevelopment of the brain during the prenatal period. Thyroid hormones are also responsible for the normal functioning of the immune system - they stimulate the cells of the immune system, the so-called T-cells, by which the body fights infection.

For normal thyroid gland need iodine. The body contains about 25 mg of iodine, of which 15 mg in the thyroid gland, the rest is concentrated in the liver, kidneys, skin, hair, nails, ovaries and prostate gland.

The daily need for an adult in iodine is 100-150 mcg.

The body's need for iodine increases during exercise; pregnancy and breastfeeding (up to 200-300 mcg); work with substances that inhibit the function of the thyroid gland (up to 200-300 mcg).

You should know that organic iodine from seaweed is better absorbed and longer retained in the body than iodine preparations (potassium iodide, etc.).

Usually people know about the lack of iodine in the body. This shortage has specific signs:

  • general weakness, increased fatigue,
  • weakening of memory, hearing, sight,
  • drowsiness, apathy, headaches,
  • weight gain,
  • conjunctivitis,
  • constipation
  • dry skin and mucous membranes,
  • decrease in arterial pressure and pulse (up to 50-60 beats per minute),
  • decrease in sexual desire in men,
  • violation of the menstrual cycle in women.

In children, iodine deficiency causes a lag in mental and physical development, their brain and nervous system are developing poorly.

However, excess iodine is no less harmful, and it also has its own signs:

  • increased salivation,
  • swelling of mucous membranes,
  • tearing,
  • allergic reactions in the form of a rash and runny nose,
  • heartbeat, trembling, nervousness, insomnia,
  • increased sweating,
  • diarrhea.

Causes and diagnosis of thyroid disease

Among the possible causes of the development of diseases, the main role is played by a poor ecological situation, a lack of iodine content in the diet, and increasingly common genetic disorders. Also undoubted is the role of stress factors, which in our time is more than enough.

So, here is a list of the main reasons:

  1. psycho-emotional overload;
  2. unbalanced nutrition and, as a result, lack of vitamins and / or microelements (including iodine deficiency);
  3. unfavorable environmental and radiation conditions;
  4. infections;
  5. chronic diseases;
  6. taking certain medications, etc.

Diagnosis is carried out by various methods. First, the doctor performs palpation of the gland, that is, probing it with your fingers. So you can determine its size, the consistency of thyroid tissue and the presence or absence of nodes. In the study of blood determine the amount of thyroid hormones. These analyzes include: thyroxine (T4) general, thyroxine (T4) free, triiodothyronine (T3) general, triiodothyronine (T3) free, thyrotropic hormone (TSH), antibodies to thyreoglobulin (AT-TG), antibodies to thyroperoxidase (AT- TPO, microsomal antibodies), antibodies to microsomal antigens (AT-MAG, antibodies to the microsomal fraction of thyrocytes), antibodies to receptors for TSH (AT for rTTG).

It is useful to know the normal performance of these analyzes.

Thyroxin (T4) is common: in women, 71-142 nmol / l, in men, 59-135 nmol / l.

Thyroxine (T4) is free: in adults, 9.0-19.0 pcmole / l.

Triiodothyronine (T3) is common: in 15-20 years - 1.23-3.23 nmol / l, from 20 to 50 years - 1.08-3.14 nmol / l, after 50 years - 0.62-2, 79 nmol / l.

Triiodothyronine (T3) free: 3.2-7.2 pmol / l.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH):

  • newborns 1,1-17,0 mU / l,
  • up to 2.5 months 0.6-10.0 mU / l,
  • from 2.5 to 14 months 0.4-7.0 mU / l,
  • from 14 months to 5 years 0.4-6.0 mU / l,
  • from 5 to 14 years 0.4-5.0 mU / l,
  • over 14 years old 0.4-4.0 mU / l.

Antibodies to thyroglobulin (AT-TG): 0-18 U / ml.

Antibodies to thyroperoxidase (AT-TPO): less than 5.6 U / ml.

Antibodies to microsomal antigens (AT-MAG): titer <1: 100.

Antibodies to TSH receptors (AT to rTTG): less than 1.0 U / l.

Also, the state of the thyroid gland is assessed by the absorption of the 131I isotope or technetium 99mTc.

Instrumental examinations include: ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland, computed tomography (MRI), thermography and scintigraphy. They determine the size of the gland and the nature of the accumulation of the radiocontrast preparation in its various sections. Using a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (TAB), the thyroid cells are collected for analysis.

Sometimes this type of analysis is performed, such as the determination of iodine excretion with urine. This study allows you to determine whether there is a relationship of thyroid disease with iodine deficiency.

General information about thyroid diseases

Practically all of them can be divided into three large groups: with increased production of hormones (hyperthyroidism), with reduced production (hypothyroidism), with normal production (normothyroidism).

Hyperthyroidism, or hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, is a condition in which the level of thyroid hormones in the blood is steadily increased, which leads to an acceleration of all metabolic processes in the body. This condition has certain symptoms due to which a person usually comes to a doctor:

  • irritability and temper,
  • general weakness and fatigue,
  • weight loss (with increased appetite),
  • rapid heartbeat (tachycardia), sometimes with a rhythm disturbance (arrhythmia),
  • sleep disturbance,
  • constant sweating,
  • violations of the menstrual cycle,
  • increased body temperature,
  • dry and loose skin,
  • memory impairment and reaction rate.

Sometimes, and especially in old age, these symptoms may not be very pronounced and people do not notice them for a long time or believe that "this is age-related."

Hyperthyroidism is observed in: Baseov-Graves disease (diffuse toxic goiter), Plummer's disease (nodular toxic goiter), de Kerven viral thyroiditis, Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis, ovarian tumors and pituitary, iodine overdose.

Hypothyroidism, or thyroid hypofunction, is a condition in which the level of thyroid hormones is constantly reduced. Symptoms in this condition develop very slowly, and a person for a long time does not notice that something is wrong with him. In addition, this condition can occur "under the guise of" various other diseases, and even the doctor does not immediately have the idea to send the patient for an examination of the thyroid gland.

With chronic deficiency of thyroid hormones, all metabolic processes in the body are slowed down, as a result of which the formation of energy and heat is reduced. Symptoms of hypothyroidism are:

  • weakness and fatigue,
  • reduced pressure, low heart rate,
  • decrease in working capacity, memory deterioration,
  • pain in muscles and joints,
  • chilliness,
  • persistent swelling of the legs, feet, puffiness of the face,
  • quick weight gain, while weight is not reduced by diet and exercise,
  • low body temperature (35.6-36.3),
  • dry, swollen skin, itching, dandruff, which does not disappear when using medical shampoos, nail changes,
  • persistent constipation,
  • memory impairment and reaction rate.

In women, hypothyroidism can cause menstrual disorders, be the cause of early menopause. One of the most common symptoms is depression, about which a person is sent to a psychologist or psychiatrist.

One form of hypothyroidism is endemic goiter, which develops with insufficient intake of iodine into the body. This situation is typical for areas where its level is low in water and soil. More rare causes of hypothyroidism are the intake of certain drugs (for example, cordarone), the removal of the gland as a result of tumors or a deficiency in the secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone.

Diet for thyroid diseases

The third group - diseases that occur without changes in the function of the gland, but at the same time there are changes in the thyroid tissue: the formation of nodes, goiter, hyperplasia, etc. Depending on the whole thyroid gland increases or only a separate part of it, it is customary to distinguish diffuse or nodular goiter There are several classifications of goiter: in shape, size and functional status.

There are five degrees of enlargement of the thyroid gland:

  1. zero degree - the gland cannot be felt and is not visible,
  2. first degree - the gland can be felt, but it cannot be seen when swallowing,
  3. the second degree is well noticeable when probing both lobes of the gland and the isthmus, it can be seen when swallowing,
  4. the third degree - the gland can be seen with the naked eye, the person has a thick neck,
  5. the fourth degree - iron of impressive size, the shape of the neck changes,
  6. the fifth degree - the thyroid gland is greatly increased in size, the neck is deformed.

It should be noted that with a diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland of 1 and 2 degrees, without dysfunction, the condition is not called a goiter, because it is not a pathology.

Methods of treatment of thyroid diseases

Hypothyroidism is usually treated with medication. In Russia, the standard of treatment is the use of thyroid hormone preparations (triiodothyronine, thyroxin, etc.), as well as their combinations and complexes with inorganic iodine (iodotyrox, thyrotum, thyrocomb). Since these drugs compensate for the lack of thyroid hormones of their own, they are usually used for life. This method is called "hormone replacement therapy." Its disadvantage is that a person depends on pills for life. In addition, as you know, all pills have side effects that may begin to manifest, but this is not pleasant.

Hyperthyroidism is also often treated with drugs. They are called thyrostatics, that is, agents that violate the process of synthesis, production or release of thyroid hormones into the blood. These can be thiamazole derivatives (tyrosol, mercazolyl), thiouracil derivatives (propicil), and diiodotyrosine. The disadvantage of this treatment is that after it the thyroid gland tissue atrophies, the thyroid function is significantly reduced and after a while the person is forced to treat the hypofunction, that is, switch to hormone replacement therapy. In addition, these drugs have an extensive list of unpleasant side effects.

When pathological changes in the structure of the thyroid gland is used surgery (resection, thyroidectomy). Mandatory indications for surgery are malignant neoplasms, as well as difficulty swallowing and breathing. Minus surgery - the risk of postoperative complications, giving about 10% of disability (damage to the vocal nerves, removal of the parathyroid glands), as well as lifelong hormone intake.

Principles of nutrition in diseases of the thyroid gland

Dietary nutrition, together with medical procedures, will ensure the normal functioning of the thyroid gland, support optimal body weight, strengthen the heart. Proper nutrition will help to normalize metabolic processes and lead to a steady hormonal background.

With elevated and decreased levels of hormones, nutrition is not the same; the diet will differ in these conditions.

With reduced thyroid function, in order to reduce dependence on drugs containing iodine, it is important to eat foods rich in iodine and limit the ingestion of goiter-like products (that is, foods that can increase the size of the thyroid gland). You also need to reduce the intake of fats and carbohydrates, eat more foods containing protein, eliminate foods high in cholesterol and salt, increase the intake of fermented milk products, cereals, fruits and vegetables.

In thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland) and various thyroid neoplasms, when its function is usually elevated, it is necessary to limit the consumption of foods with a high content of iodine and to abandon the use of goiter.

In addition, these products also reduce the uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland and slow down the production of hormones. The result is a larger iron, but with a reduced function. True, a healthy person does not manifest this effect of these products, but if there is a shortage of iodine in the area or in the diet and the person has a predisposition to goiter, then these products should be excluded.

What products are goiter?

The main ones are cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi. Cruciferous thiocyanates contain, which is considered to be strong goiter. Isothiocyanates can lead to the formation of goiter due to blocking the absorption of iodine by the thyroid gland.

That is, with endotmic goiter or hypothyroidism, it is better to avoid them. Other products are also included in this group: turnip, canola, horseradish, mustard, wasabi, watercress and even some herbs (for example, shepherd's purse). In addition, organic compounds with similar effects are found in corn and sweet potatoes (sweet potatoes).

The enzymes involved in the formation of goitre elements in plants are partially destroyed by heat treatment, that is, they can be consumed in moderation, provided that they are boiled or otherwise prepared. In studies it was found that if these vegetables are crushed, then they lose up to 75% of isothiocyanate, and if they are boiled, then up to 95%.

This group also includes soy products, which act as goitrogen, that is, they absorb thyroid hormone. Isoflavones contained in soybeans can prevent iodine from entering the thyroid gland. This effect is manifested with a low content of iodine in food. With normal iodine content, there will be no such effect. So with a reduced thyroid function should beware of soy products.

As a result of numerous experiments, it turned out that millet (millet) has a goitre effect, especially the bran of this cereal. The World Encyclopedia of Healthy Foods lists other foods besides those listed above that should be avoided if there is a goiter, such as peanuts, peaches, strawberries, radishes and spinach.

By the way, smokers are also at risk of getting thyroid disease, as goitogenes are part of the tobacco.

In addition to goiter products there are some that should be used with caution for various reasons.

Coffee. You can drink it at least an hour after taking hormonal preparations for treating the thyroid gland, since it impairs their absorption.

Purchased calcium-rich juices act in the same way: they impair the absorption of drugs for the treatment of the thyroid gland. Such juices can be drunk 3-4 hours after taking these medicines. And it is better not to drink at all.

By the way, iron works the same way, so with caution you need to eat foods that are high in iron: meat, fish, egg yolk, liver, lungs, legumes, apples, plums, peaches. It is better to eat them separately from taking pills.

For diseases of the thyroid gland and metabolic disorders, it is important to drink enough water. Water helps regulate metabolism, reduce appetite, get rid of bloating, improve digestion and avoid constipation.

When treating any diseases of the thyroid gland, it is necessary to completely eliminate sweets, carbonated drinks, canned, salty, spicy foods, coffee and alcohol from the diet.

Nutrition with reduced hormone production

It is necessary to increase the intake of iodine in the body, and to do this, use more seafood and seaweed, eggs, meat and other foods rich in protein, cereals, vegetables and fruits.

The diet should be low-calorie, because the metabolism is slowed down and overweight is present. It is recommended to reduce the amount of consumed fats, carbohydrates, completely eliminate all products with a high content of cholesterol, salt, edema. Excluded from the diet of lard, butter, cream, tropical vegetable oils (coconut oil).

It is recommended to eat foods with high protein content (in particular, fish and seafood, lean meat), dairy products, cereals, vegetables and fruits are very useful. It is recommended to eat at least 5 times a day to stimulate the synthesis of hormones in the thyroid gland.

The amount of iodine in the body can be increased not only with vitamin complexes, but also with food. Here is a list of the most iodine-rich foods (iodine content is 100 g):

  • feijoa 80-350 mcg,
  • sea kale (kelp) 300 mcg,
  • squid 300 mcg,
  • hake 160 µg,
  • Pollock 150 mcg,
  • haddock 150 mcg
  • cod 135 mcg,
  • 88 mcg shrimp,
  • perch 60 mcg,
  • capelin 50 mcg,
  • Som 50 mcg
  • tuna 50 mcg,
  • pink salmon 50 mcg,
  • catfish 50 mcg,
  • flounder 50 mcg.

It is necessary to fear not only a shortage, but also an excess of iodine, so before starting a diet or the use of chemical additives, you should consult with your doctor.

When hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland, due to a sharp slowdown of metabolic processes often occurs disruption of the bowels and constipation. Fiber improves intestinal permeability, normalizes stool. Therefore, be sure to eat foods rich in fiber: whole grains, oatmeal, fruits, berries, nuts (grapes, apples, blackberries, pears, peaches, plums, watermelon, dates, pistachios, figs), vegetables (peas, lettuce, beets , beans, potatoes). Only it should be remembered that all types of cabbage, radishes, carrots are goiter products, and this outweighs the fact that they are rich in fiber.

In addition to iodine in hypothyroidism, it is recommended to use products with a high content of cobalt, manganese, copper and selenium. Such substances contribute to the normal assimilation of iodine and are contained in berries, pumpkin, root crops, dogrose, lettuce, as well as in broths of hop cones, wormwood, yarrow.

Forbidden products include:

  1. sausage, sausages, smoked meats, salinity, canned food,
  2. products with a high cholesterol content (fatty sorts of poultry, fish or meat, animal fats, caviar, offal, heavy cream or sour cream, butter),
  3. easily digestible carbohydrates (sweet pastries, white bread, sugar, jam, honey, very sweet berries or fruits),
  4. strong tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages,
  5. refined products (ground sugar, rice or white flour), fast food,
  6. All products containing soy.

Refined products can suppress the ability of the human body to absorb iodine, they also increase blood sugar and significantly slow down the formation of thyroid hormones.

Carbohydrates dramatically increase blood glucose levels, triggering the activation of the stress hormone and slowing the production of other essential hormones. Pasta is allowed only if it is made from durum wheat.

As for the liquid, because of the tendency to swelling a person should drink no more than 1.5 liters of liquid per day, including teas and herbal teas.

It has already been said above that coffee can impair the absorption of drugs, but a cup of natural (insoluble) weak coffee per day is permissible. But tea contains fluoride, which reduces the activity of the thyroid gland. This is especially true for tea bags. An increased amount of fluoride reduces the iodine content in the body. Therefore, people with low thyroid function with fluoride products should be limited (mainly tea and saltwater fish). By the way, if the products are cooked in aluminum cookware, then the amount of fluorine in the products will decrease due to its reaction with aluminum. Do not use, including fluorinated toothpastes, fluorinated water.

Also, in hypothyroidism, due to slower metabolism and overweight, cholesterol levels are usually elevated. To reduce its numbers there are certain rules of nutrition, which must be combined with the rules outlined above.

Nutrition to regulate cholesterol levels

Since the main reason for the increase in blood cholesterol in general and low density lipoprotein cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol) in particular is excessive consumption of animal products, then prevention consists of a change in diet. Cholesterol is found in foods of animal origin: meat, milk and products of its processing, including cheeses. Especially a lot of cholesterol in the yolks of eggs, as well as the internal organs of animals (liver, kidneys, lungs, brain). Therefore, in the diet limit the total amount of fat and cholesterol and replace saturated fats with unsaturated fats.

Unsaturated fats are found in foods of plant origin (sunflower, corn, olive, soy bean oil). Many unsaturated fats in fish.

A good substitute for foods containing saturated fats is food rich in complex carbohydrates (starch, dietary fiber). Complex carbohydrates (starch) in many pasta, various grades of bread, cereals, dried beans and peas.

Consumption of carbohydrates in itself can not affect cholesterol metabolism. However, with prolonged use of easily digestible carbohydrates, especially in combination with fats (cream, cakes), obesity develops (90% of subcutaneous fat are of "carbohydrate" origin). And already excessive fat mass and contributes to the accumulation of cholesterol in the body.

Bread, cereals (porridge of them), pasta and various pasta, potatoes, rice contain significant amounts of protein. Legumes are an excellent source of vegetable protein. It is very useful to eat porridge in the morning, while cooking them in water or skimmed milk (1% is best).

It is necessary to introduce into the diet as much as possible fruits and vegetables. They are not only a source of fiber and a substitute for food that contains a lot of fat and cholesterol, but also a source of vitamins C, E, A, beta-carotene, and many other vitamins and minerals.

Very useful nuts. They have a lot of calories, but it is proved that if a person gets 20% of the caloric intake of nuts, the “harmful” cholesterol goes down in 4 weeks by more than 10%.

The inclusion of salmon and avocado in food reduces the total cholesterol level by 3-8%, and the level of "harmful" cholesterol - by 5-13%.

When eating meat, you should choose lean pieces and, in addition, you need to cut and throw away all the fat in meat. It is preferable to use poultry meat (but not ducks and geese), and skin should be removed from the bird and the visible fat also cut off. After cooking broths, soups from meat or poultry, while stewing meat, remove and discard the fat that is floating on the surface. To do this, it is recommended to cool the finished product a little so that the fat has risen to the surface. It is better to avoid sausages, wieners and sausages, in which the enormous amount of refractory fats (even in the "lean" sausage), in addition, a lot of salt.

However, we must not forget that lean meat (beef) is a source of not only protein, but also iron, so you should not strive to sharply limit the consumption of lean meat. It is necessary as often as possible to include in your menu instead of meat fish dishes. They should be at least two a week, and it is better to do completely “fish” days. The total amount of meat (necessarily lean), including poultry and fish, should be about 170 grams per day for a “healthy” person with high cholesterol and 140 grams per day for a patient with coronary heart disease.

It is necessary to avoid the use of all fatty dairy products (it is better to take milk and kefir with the least possible fat content), exclude sour cream, cream, limit hard cheeses. If possible, you should not use products from whole and full-fat milk (cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt, ice cream, etc.), preferring low-fat and fat-free. Low-fat and skimmed milk and products made from them (cheese, cottage cheese, etc.) contain as much protein, calcium, and phosphorus as fat.

It is better to refrain from eating butter at all, and when cooking, use only vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive). In general, lard, butter and other animal fats contain no more cholesterol than other animal products. However, their use leads to the fact that the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver increases dramatically. Under the action of animal fats, the absorption of dietary cholesterol in the intestine is also activated. Each extra kilogram of body weight increases the amount of newly synthesized cholesterol by 20 mg. Animal fats may even contain no cholesterol at all, but in any case they increase the synthesis of their own cholesterol by the body and contribute to the penetration of cholesterol into the atherosclerotic plaque.

As a substitute for butter, you can use various soft margarines, which contain unsaturated fats. Their minimum content should be 75%. Vegetable oil lowers blood cholesterol and flushes lipoproteins from soft plaques. In addition to binding cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils have a choleretic effect. And the more bile acids are derived from the liver, the more cholesterol is used for these purposes.

However, vegetable oils and other products containing predominantly unsaturated fats should be consumed in moderation due to their high calorie content.

Vegetables, meat and fish is better to stew or boil, and not to fry. Eating eggs is limited to two per week, and it is better to use egg whites (for example, in the form of protein omelets or in salads).

Salt must be limited to necessarily and use no more than 3 grams per day. Reducing dietary salt intake to 6 grams per day or reducing dietary sodium intake to 2-3 grams per day is a means of preventing high blood pressure. In hot climates with high humidity, a reduction in salt intake should be carried out to a level that ensures sodium replacement due to its natural loss with sweat. The rules are simple:

  • do not add some food during the cooking process,
  • remove the salt from the table,
  • replace salt seasonings with salt-free spices,
  • buying products, watch the content of sodium in them.

Are there any deviations from the diet? Violations of the diet at a party or in connection with some events are permissible. It is necessary only in the following days to limit the diet, compensating for the excess amount of fat and calories.

Some people, in order to quickly reach the goal, use very strict diets with a sharp restriction of fat. Such diets, as a rule, lead to imbalances in nutrition, loss of minerals, vitamins, essential amino acids, essential for the vital activity of the body fatty acids and many other substances, and for this reason cannot be used for a long time.

Eggs should be limited, but they should not be abandoned altogether, since in egg yolks cholesterol is contained in the most rational proportion with lecithin, which improves cholesterol metabolism and prevents the development of atherosclerosis. Sour cream and cream also contain a lot of lecithin compared to butter, therefore these products should also be preferred.

Nutrition with increased hormone production

Increased metabolism leads to the fact that tissues and organs need a large amount of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements. Therefore, a person should eat about 25% more calories than ordinary people.

In hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis) you need to consume more calcium, which reduces the production of thyroid hormones. The greatest amount of calcium is found in milk, cheese, cottage cheese, vegetables and fruits. Calcium of milk products is better absorbed in the intestines.

Be sure to eat must be foods high in fiber, which cleans the body from harmful accumulations, and a large amount of fluid, which will allow to remove metabolic products from the body and muffle increased appetite. Foods rich in fiber: whole grains, oatmeal, fruits, berries, nuts (grapes, apples, blackberries, pears, peaches, plums, watermelon, dates, pistachios, figs), vegetables (peas, lettuce, beets, carrots, beans , potatoes, cabbage).

Due to increased excitability, it is not recommended to use foods that excite the central nervous system: spicy, rich broths, mushrooms, chocolate, coffee and tea, alcohol, spices and spices. Forbidden garlic, sorrel, fatty meat, lard, canned food. It is also recommended to reduce the intake of foods that cause fermentation in the intestines, for example, radish, legumes, cabbage, plums, apricots, grapes, pickles, carbonated drinks.

All products containing a lot of iodine are limited: marine slave and seafood, seaweed (kelp, nori). Care should be taken not to buy iodized salt.

Nutrition for hyperthyroidism should be frequent, but with the use of a small amount of food (split meals). Cooking is best done steamed or in the oven: fried and smoked food is not allowed.

Due to increased metabolism, a person needs to drink enough water to remove metabolic products.

How to drink water

Determine whether you drink enough fluids in several ways. The easiest way to do this is by urine color: it should be light, almost transparent. You can also pinch your hand from the outside of the palm: if the skin smoothes out quickly, then the cells do not feel thirsty, if not, change the drinking regimen for now.

There are several rules that will help you and your body absorb water:

  • do not need to drink immediately a lot and quickly. Drink in small sips. This will greatly facilitate the work of the kidneys;
  • Drink 1-2 glasses immediately after waking up. This will quickly fill all the cells of the digestive system with moisture, and the food obtained at breakfast will be absorbed faster. Opinions differ on the temperature of this water: someone is fighting for hot (or at least warm) water, someone insists on cold water. Actually, it depends on the effect you want. More on this will be discussed below;
  • Try not to drink very cold water. Due to a sharp temperature drop, there can be a spasm of the vocal folds and the voice will disappear for a while. And because of this easy to catch a cold. In addition, according to recent studies, ice water leads to a decrease in metabolic processes and eventually leads to obesity;
  • do not drink too hot water. It destroys the enamel of the teeth and burns the mucous membrane of the pharynx, esophagus and stomach.

Water will quickly quench your thirst, if you acidify it with citric or ascorbic acid, add juices of sour fruits or berries. To quench your thirst well table mineral water, diluted fruit juices. The mineral salts contained in them help to retain the right amount of water in the body. In the water to quench thirst should not be more than 1-2% sugar. Does not give a refreshing effect and water at temperatures above + 12-15 ° C.

Drinking water usually does not quench thirst immediately. This occurs 10–15 minutes after fluid from the stomach and intestines begins to flow into the blood.

Much better than ordinary water, quenching thirst bread kvass, green tea, cranberry juice. This is because water is absorbed more slowly than beverages containing certain “signals” for the stomach that it is time for it to suck up the liquid. Such substances are contained in the infusion, compotes, morse, various light soup. When used, saliva secretion increases significantly and dry mouth is reduced.

In various articles they write that it is categorically impossible to drink water during a meal. Recommend not to drink it an hour before meals and 1.5 hours after. However, the whole history of mankind shows that people drank precisely during the meal. If it were so bad, would they not notice it? We often talk about how much our ancestors knew about the right way of life and how they were able to maintain their health. People of different countries have long practiced drinking during meals. The differences lie only in the liquids used: water, diluted or undiluted wine, kvass, beer, tea, diluted sour milk drinks. For example, the French drink table wine while eating, which organic acids stimulate digestion, and Americans drink cold water. In Japan, it is customary to drink tea before and during meals.

In theory, drinking water or other liquids while eating should slow down digestion in the stomach somewhat by diluting the gastric juice. However, recent studies conducted in the United States have not confirmed this position. Obviously, a lot depends on the nature of gastric secretion (concentration of hydrochloric acid and enzymes) and the composition of food.

It should only be noted that cold water, drunk after ingestion of fatty foods, leads to the fact that food is retained in the stomach, and drinking cold water immediately after eating raw fruits and berries usually causes increased gassing and bloating.

Thus, the question of the use of water or other liquids while eating, each person can decide for himself. Someone may not drink during the meal, but someone does not get a dry piece in the throat. The only exceptions are alkaline mineral waters, which should not be drunk before, during and immediately after eating.

During weight loss and exercise, you can not limit yourself to drink. In training, it is recommended to drink water at least every 20 minutes. You also need to drink water before and after exercise. And never wait for the onset of thirst, because by the time the brain gives a signal about it, the body already loses the necessary water supply and the effectiveness of training drops by 5-10%.

When using any diet, one must remember that intracellular metabolism worsens in a dehydrated body and slag accumulates in the adipose tissue. To remove these slags, additional energy is required. Man perceives this as a feeling of hunger, he really wants to eat. But in fact he needs to drink.

The world famous Iranian doctor F. Batmanghelidzh, who studied the effects of water on the treatment of various diseases, gives the following advice:

  1. Water should be drunk before eating. The optimal time is 30 minutes before meals. This will prepare the digestive tract, especially those who suffer from gastritis, duodenitis, heartburn, ulcers, colitis, or other digestive disorders;
  2. water should be drunk whenever you feel thirsty, even while eating;
  3. water should be drunk 2.5 hours after eating to complete the digestive process and eliminate dehydration caused by splitting food;
  4. water should be drunk in the morning immediately after waking up in order to eliminate dehydration caused by a long sleep;
  5. water should be drunk before performing physical exercises in order to create a supply of free water for sweating;
  6. water should be drunk by those who are prone to constipation and consume insufficient fruits and vegetables. Two or three glasses of water in the morning immediately after waking up act as the most effective laxative.

All of these recommendations apply to healthy people who do not need to follow a drinking regime with fluid restriction. If there is a disease of the heart or kidneys, it is necessary to consult a doctor. Usually, the prescribed diet clearly states how much liquid per day (including soups and compotes) can be consumed.

You also need to remember that overweight people on the background of any diseases (for example, diabetes) water retention in the body can occur due to a violation of water-salt metabolism, so they also need to check the amount of fluid from specialists.

For weight loss you need to drink more: German scientists have calculated that people who drink at least 2 liters of water a day “burn” extra 150 calories and thus get rid of excess fat. The point here is that water stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which regulates metabolism. Its acceleration provokes the burning of calories. True, scientists remind that neither sweet soda, nor any other drinks, except for ordinary mineral or melt water, will not give the desired effect and only harm the body.


Briefly, we can and can not eat.


You can: sea fish, seafood and sea kale, eggs, meat and other foods rich in protein, cereals, vegetables and fruits, dairy products.

Rich in iodine: feijoa, sea kale (kelp), squid, hake, pollack, haddock, cod, shrimp, perch, capelin, catfish, tuna, pink salmon, catfish, flounder.

Foods rich in fiber: whole grains, oatmeal, grapes, apples, blackberries, pears, peaches, plums, watermelon, dates, pistachios, figs, vegetables (peas, lettuce, beets, beans, potatoes).

Prohibited Products:

  • sausage, sausages, smoked meats, salinity, canned food,
  • products with a high cholesterol content (fatty sorts of poultry, fish or meat, animal fats, caviar, offal, heavy cream or sour cream, butter),
  • easily digestible carbohydrates (sweet pastries, white bread, sugar, jam, honey, very sweet berries or fruits),
  • strong tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages,
  • refined products (ground sugar, rice or white flour), fast food,
  • All products containing soy.

Butter is allowed little by little in sauces or seasonings.

If during hypothyroidism the thyroid gland is enlarged, then goiter-like products are not consumed raw (see the list below), they can be consumed in cooked and stewed form.


Need: milk, cheese, cottage cheese, vegetables and fruits.

Foods rich in fiber: whole grains, oatmeal, fruits, berries, nuts (grapes, apples, blackberries, pears, peaches, plums, watermelon, dates, pistachios, figs), vegetables (peas, lettuce, beets, carrots, beans , potatoes, cabbage).

You can not: spicy, rich broth, mushrooms, chocolate, coffee and tea, alcohol, spices and spices, garlic, sorrel, fatty meat, lard, canned food; sea ​​fish and seafood, seaweed (kelp, nori).

It is recommended to reduce the use of: radish, cabbage, plums, apricots, grapes, pickles, carbonated drinks.

Goiter (enlarged thyroid gland, which happens with normal or reduced hormone levels).

Undesirable: broccoli, cauliflower, white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, turnips, rapeseed, horseradish, mustard, wasabi, watercress, corn, sweet potatoes, millet, peanuts, peaches, strawberries, radishes and spinach.