Factors in the development of Hashimoto’s disease , its signs and effective treatment

It is difficult to overestimate the importance of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. They actively participate in growth processes, are responsible for the normal development of the human body, the regulation of metabolism, the stable functioning of the nervous and reproductive systems. The destruction of tissues of the endocrine organ, which leads to Hashimoto’s disease (autoimmune thyroiditis, AIT), is the main reason for the deterioration of people’s health and their quality of life.

At risk are women aged 40 to 60 years. However, recently in medical practice, cases began to appear when AIT began to be diagnosed in younger patients and children. The disease, whose symptoms were reported by the Japanese doctor Hashimoto in 1912, is a common disease of the endocrine system. The disease refers to the pathology of the thyroid gland, the hereditary nature of the occurrence. The main difference between Hashimoto and Graves , Graves’ disease, is the late onset of symptoms, the production of a special type of antibodies that destroy thyroid tissue, and the development of hypothyroidism .

Causes of endocrine disease

AIT Hashimoto develops against the background of a malfunction in the immune system of the human organism . The list of factors that contribute to the appearance of pathology includes:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • infection of the human body by representatives of pathogenic flora;
  • toxic effects and radiation exposure;
  • chronic inflammatory processes;
  • the presence of autoimmune pathologies of other types;
  • addiction to smoking;
  • taking medications for an extended period of time;
  • psychological trauma;
  • thyroid injury;
  • surgical procedures of the endocrine organ;
  • insufficient amount of iodine in the human body or its excess;
  • poor environmental conditions;
  • the presence of other types of pathologies of the endocrine system;
  • severe hormonal imbalance.

Most experts have come to the conclusion that this thyroid disease develops as a result of a combination of the genetic cause of the pathology with its concomitant factors.

Signs of an endocrine disease

Hashimoto’s disease has its own symptoms, the appearance of which indicates the need to seek qualified medical help. Timely treatment of pathology provides an opportunity to avoid the consequences and development of serious complications.

The main signs of the stage of the disease, at which there is a noticeable decrease in the productivity of the thyroid gland, include:

  • drowsiness, weakness, fatigue, malaise;
  • depressive state;
  • trouble concentrating and swallowing;
  • the appearance of swelling, constipation, pain in the joints, as a result of a decrease in their flexibility;
  • hair loss;
  • increase in body mass index and development of obesity;
  • increased irritability;
  • decrease in working capacity;
  • cold intolerance;
  • the appearance of bags under the eyes;
  • dryness of the skin and fragility of the nail plates;
  • slow speech with a hoarse voice;
  • violations of the periodicity of menstrual flow.

When probing the neck, specialists can detect Hashimoto’s hard and patchy goiter . In the absence of proper treatment, endocrine pathology leads to an increase in the size of the thyroid gland and a more pronounced symptomatology.

Diagnosis of the disease

Effective elimination of the problem of the production of specific antibodies that destroy thyroid cells depends on the correct identification of the causes that led to its development.

To the main diagnostic measures to determine hypothyroidism , Hashimoto Aitis and other pathologies of the endocrine system include:

  • external examination of the patient;
  • collection of a complete anamnesis from the words of the patient;
  • taking blood samples for analysis to determine the level of hormones produced by the thyroid gland;
  • performing an immunogram and determining antithyroid autoantibodies , an increased number of which indicates AIT;
  • ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland, which allows to determine the size of the gland;
  • endocrine biopsy.

Timely diagnosis of pathology excludes the development of complications.

Features of treatment and consequences of the disease

When diagnosing Hashimoto’s disease , the prescribed drug therapy, which involves adjusting the functioning of the immune system, includes taking medications containing hormones that the thyroid gland produces.

The most popular drugs include “L – thyroxine”, ” Levothyroxine “, ” Eutiroks “. Dosages of drugs are prescribed by an endocrinologist, and increased if necessary. Very often, when diagnosing a pathology, drug therapy is required throughout life. Operations are necessary only in cases of a strong enlargement of the thyroid gland, the appearance of serious problems with swallowing, breathing, and the possible development of malignant neoplasms. Among the complications and consequences of the pathology, it is necessary to note the appearance of goiter, which is a clinical syndrome that develops as a result of a deficiency of thyroid hormones, and, like encephalopathy, is a disease that threatens the health and life of the patient. Its severe course, in the absence of the necessary treatment, causes myxedematous coma and death.

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