What are the manifestations of diffuse thyroid goiter: symptoms of goiter 1 and 2 degrees, causes of the disease

Thyroid diseases have become very common in the modern world. Improper nutrition, polluted air entail a weakening of the protective functions of the body. Diffuse goiter of the thyroid gland, the symptoms of which can be determined independently, is one of the disorders of the thyroid gland.

Reasons for the development of the disease

It is known that iodine is necessary for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. The farther a person lives from the sea coast, the higher his iodine deficiency, which must be replenished with fruits and biological supplements.

Goiter, which is a consequence of the lack of this trace element, is called colloidal. The cells of the organ are actively dividing, and a viscous substance accumulates between them, which causes a sharp increase in the size of the organ.

Diffuse goiter may occur due to autoimmune processes. The immune system, designed to protect the body from foreign bodies, in the case of thyroid goiter, directs its strength against its own cells. Antibodies do not destroy tissue formations of the organ, but actively stimulate the growth of cells and hormones.

And also the development of the disease can be affected by heredity and poor living conditions.

How to identify a disease

Diffuse thyroid gland is often found in children over 9 years of age and adolescents who are undergoing hormonal changes in the body. Women suffer more than men from this disease, because their body is more often exposed to hormonal imbalances (menstruation, childbirth, menopause). This disease is characterized by swelling of the thyroid tissue without the formation of compacted nodules. This process becomes noticeable due to an increase in the size of the gland, and if a person is overweight, then this symptom remains invisible.

Dysfunction of the thyroid gland is determined by a number of signs that can be easily detected. First of all, these are sensations of discomfort in the neck:

  • “lump in the throat;
  • hoarseness of voice;
  • dry cough;
  • suffocation when wearing headscarves and high-necked clothes.

Often, a violation of the activity of the thyroid gland entails a failure of the hormonal system. This process is characterized by:

  • obesity;
  • shortness of breath;
  • decrease in working capacity;
  • pallor and dry skin;
  • loss of eyelashes.

With organ dysfunction, the gland begins to produce an excess amount of hormones. Signs of such a cause of goiter may be:

  • weight loss;
  • violation of cardiac activity;
  • nervousness;
  • sleep disturbance;
  • trembling in the fingers.

Some eye changes can also signal the development of the disease. With rare exceptions, a person develops exophthalmos, when the eyeballs bulge forward (bulging eyes). There are other symptoms as well:

  1. violation of the motor activity of the eyeballs;
  2. swelling and darkening of the eyelids;
  3. rare blinking;
  4. exfoliation of the upper eyelid from the shell when looking down;
  5. wide opening of the eyeballs.

The disease can worsen due to untimely treatment, and then a thyrotoxic crisis will occur. This phenomenon is characterized by the manifestation of all the symptoms of diffuse thyroid goiter at once.

This condition affects people after strong unrest and stressful situations, operations. Severe body damage and viral infections can also cause a crisis. There are 3 degrees of deterioration:

  • for the 1st degree it is characteristic: the preservation of working capacity, the absence of ophthalmological problems, the increase in nervousness, which entails excessive sweating, and the loss of 5 kilograms of body weight;
  • characteristic of the 2nd degree: weakness, loss of 10 kilograms of weight, palpitations, hyperhidrosis, destabilization of pressure;
  • grade 3 characteristic: disability, large weight loss (about 50%), increased heart rate, malfunction of the liver and adrenal glands.

Some patients suffering from this disease have a mixed disease – nodular goiter. It is characterized not only by an increase in the thyroid gland, but also by the formation of nodules that affect both lobes of the organ.

Classification of the stages of the disease

If signs of diffuse goiter appear, the stage of the disease can be determined using the usual probing of the thyroid gland:

  • Stage 0 – the thyroid gland is not visible, and it is not palpable;
  • Stage 1 – the gland is not visually visible, but it can be felt;
  • Stage 2 – the thyroid gland becomes visible when eating;
  • Stage 3 – protruding gland increases the size of the neck;
  • Stage 4 – a strong bulge of the organ disfigures the neck;
  • Stage 5 – the thyroid gland increases to its maximum size and begins to put pressure on nearby organs.

If the first signs of diffuse goiter of the thyroid gland are found, it is necessary to contact a pediatrician or therapist. They will be able to confirm or refute your suspicions, as well as refer you to an endocrinologist, who, after a complete examination, will name the cause of the disease and prescribe medication.

Pregnancy and thyroid dysfunction

Diffuse goiter can appear after the conception of a child, when the body experiences a certain load, and the organs begin to work more actively.

A feature of the course of this disease in pregnant women is the absence of symptoms, therefore, in order to make a diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo an examination and pass all the recommended tests. If the data obtained after the examination cause concern, then the doctor prescribes an ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland and, by probing, determines the stage of the disease.

Early diagnosis is necessary for women who could not have a child for a long time due to hormonal imbalance or suffered from spontaneous miscarriages.

Pathology of the activity of the thyroid gland and the formation of goiter during the bearing of a child require special attention, because disruptions in the functioning of the organ can affect the mental abilities of the unborn child.

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