Thyroid-stimulating hormone in children: the norm, deviations and their causes

Thyrotropin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. Its secretion directly affects the functioning of the thyroid gland. Its degree varies depending on the age, physiological state, and gender of the person. Determining the level of TSH, T3, and T4 in children helps to correctly assess the state of the thyroid gland.

The relationship of hormones

The release of thyrotropin is a reaction to an increase in triiodothyronine and thyroxine. The goal of TSH is to normalize the secretion of T3 and T4. They are stimulating:

  • muscle activity;
  • thought processes;
  • growth of the body.

With normal thyroid function, the amount of T4 exceeds the T3 indicators by 60 times. In addition, triiodothyronine and T4 perform a number of important functions:

  • enhance heat exchange processes;
  • contribute to high blood pressure;
  • oxygenate the internal organs;
  • normalize the frequency of contractions of the heart muscle;
  • they participate in protein synthesis.

Norm of thyrotropin in children

TSH testing in children is performed on an empty stomach. You need to stop eating 6 hours before it. The level of thyrotropin is normal if its concentration does not exceed the following indicators (the measurement unit for determining the norm of the hormone is considered to be mEd/l):

  • in newborns—1,1-17,0;
  • children are 2.5 months old.—from 0.6 to 10.0;
  • from 2.5 to 14 months—0.4—7.0;
  • from 14 months to 5 years—from 0.4 to 6.0;
  • in children from 5 to 14 years—0.4—5.0;
  • for boys over 14 years of age— from 0.4 to 4.0.

The norm of TSH in girls will vary. This is due to their variable physiological state. For example, thyrotropin in a fourteen-year-old girl will be reduced if a low-calorie diet is followed.

Dynamics of changes in the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone

In newborns, TSH levels are always elevated. This is due to the fact that the growing body needs the hormones T3 and T4 more than ever, which contribute to the formation of the child’s nervous system. As it strengthens, thyrotropin decreases. In the case when its level remains unchanged or tends to a mark that exceeds the norm, this may signal the presence of one of the diseases:

  • pituitary tumors;
  • a mental health problem;
  • acute adrenal insufficiency.

There are cases when a newborn baby has a TSH level significantly lower than normal. This indicates that the child has a severe congenital malady. If you neglect its treatment, the probability of developing mental retardation increases significantly.

Diagnosis of thyrotropin level

Thyroid diseases in children have the same clinical picture as in adults. With the help of a blood test, a deviation of TSH from the norm is determined. In addition, the doctor pays attention to the level of triiodothyronine and T4, since their secretion directly depends on thyrotropin. T4 promotes protein synthesis. Determining its indicators helps to determine the presence of a gland disease, and its rate may vary depending on the patient’s age. In order to determine the type and nature of the disease, it is necessary to take into account the concentration of T3. By examining quantitative indicators, the doctor determines the state of the patient’s thyroid gland.

What ailments contribute to an increase in the level of the hormone?

In the case when thyrotropin deviates from the norm in a large direction, this indicates the presence of the following diseases::

  • hypothyroidism;
  • pathology of the gallbladder;
  • poisoning;
  • adrenal insufficiency.

TSH may exceed normal values if the child takes the following medications::

  • iodine-containing preparations;
  • neuroleptics;
  • prednisone;
  • drugs that block muscle contractions;
  • adrenoblockers.

Decrease in thyrotropin concentration

Low relative to normal TSH level in children is a consequence of:

  • goiter;
  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • pituitary gland dysfunctions;
  • pituitary gland injuries.

It also goes down when:

  • severe mental disorders;
  • depressions;
  • psychological injuries;
  • attrition;
  • stress issues.

What should I do if thyrotropin deviates from the norm?

If the TSH level is low in children, it is recommended to conduct treatment aimed at increasing it. For this purpose, medical preparations are used (most often—”Tyrosol”). Hyperthyroidism is indicated:

  • radioactive iodine;
  • antithyroid drugs;

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