Thyroid gland in women: norm and deviations

The role of the thyroid gland in the female body is of serious importance not only from the point of view of the endocrine, but also the reproductive system of the body. In the normal state, the organ is similar to a butterfly and is located in the anterior part of the neck. If you compare the volume of representatives of both sexes, then in women the size is slightly smaller, but the level of certain hormones is higher.

Standard of sizes

The thyroid gland, when its condition is normal, is represented as two lobes united by a jumper. However, there are cases when there is a third, additional part of the pyramid shape. This is also the norm of the structure, although slightly different from the generally accepted one. This feature of the organ does not affect its functioning, and is also not considered a pathology.

The norm of thyroid mass can vary from 20 to 40, which is an individual feature of the body. Its dimensions 20*20*40, and the connecting isthmus – 4-5 mm. The total volume is calculated using the following formula: width x length x thickness x coefficient 0.479 for each lobe without taking into account the isthmus.

The size and norm of the maximum size of the organ in women corresponds to various parameters (see cube):

  • 50 kg-max 15,5;
  • 60 kg-max 18.7;
  • 70 kg-max 22,0;
  • 80 kg-max 25.0;
  • 90 kg-max 28.4;
  • 100 kg-max 32.0.

The size of the organ in girls has its own parameters, for which there is a separate norm:

Age in yearsMaximum volume, norm

During natural hormonal changes (puberty, pregnancy) in women, the volume of the thyroid gland increases. After the birth of a child, it returns to its natural state in 6-12 months, and with the onset of old age, it decreases. In addition, there is an opinion among medical professionals that older patients may have a norm of up to 18 cubic cm.

We diagnose sizes and deviations

During the reception of the patient, the endocrinologist can determine the volume, condition of the thyroid gland by palpation, and note its increase. However, the actual ratio of measurement parameters can only be determined by ultrasound or computed axial tomography with a small error.

The first method allows you to determine the size of the organ and isthmus lobes, the presence of nodes, their total number, and the type of formation. Along the way, an examination of the lymph nodes located in the immediate vicinity is carried out.

The second method is used to determine the degree of increase in the volume of the thyroid gland, as well as narrowing or displacement of the trachea from the goiter.

Enlargement of the thyroid gland

Depending on the degree of change in the organ, there are several levels of increase:

  1. With a visual review and palpation, the volume norm is not violated, only when swallowing can you see the isthmus;
  2. The contours of the neck, the dimensions are not externally changed, but in the process of swallowing, the lobes of the gland are slightly noticeable, they are also determined by palpation;
  3. The neck is thickened, the volume of the organ has not increased much, but it is noticeable, which can be seen without any additional manipulations;
  4. During external inspection, the same indicators are determined as in the previous paragraph, but the magnification size is much larger;
  5. Changes in the thyroid gland in terms of enlargement can be determined even by a non-specialist, since the volume and size reach significant scales, while squeezing the trachea, preventing the patient from swallowing and breathing.

The last three degrees have a second name-goiter.

A symptom in the form of an enlarged thyroid gland indicates a change in the level of hormones T3 and TSH in the body. Due to their lack, the body loses its energy, there is weakness, drowsiness, decreased activity, and an increase in cholesterol in the blood. In addition, there may be violations of potency, concentration of attention.

Reasons for the increase

The thyroid gland needs iodine. Its insufficient amount provokes the growth of goiter, which in the absence of timely help can reach a weight of up to several kilograms. In most cases registered by medicine, such pathologies are usually irreversible. The patient, in order to maintain the normal functioning of the organ, will have to constantly take artificial hormones so that the volume remains in the same state.

A dangerous condition in women is a change in the size of the thyroid gland due to increased production of its hormones, when the volume norm is exceeded. This condition in medicine is called thyrotoxicosis or hyperthyroidism. Reasons for its appearance:

  • Nervous exhaustion;
  • Severe fatigue;
  • Acceleration of metabolism.

The disease is subject to mandatory treatment, in the absence of which there is a high risk of disruption of blood vessels and the heart.

In addition, there are other reasons for an enlarged thyroid gland. They are quite diverse, here are the main ones:

  • Chronic diseases of various body systems;
  • Bad habits;
  • Poor ecology;
  • Severe or harmful working conditions;
  • Poor nutrition, where heavy foods predominate;
  • Stress issues;
  • Weakened immune systems.

All of the above causes hormonal changes in the body, which are the main factor affecting the increase in the size of this organ. Most often, they occur in women of childbearing age, during puberty and menopause, and can also cause complications.

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