How does thyroid pathology threaten the development of a child?

May 25 – World Thyroid Day. We did not stand aside and considered it necessary to remind readers of the endocrine gland abnormalities that occur in children. They are relatively easy to diagnose and treat. But if this is not done on time, you can lose significant potential in the mental and physical development of the child.

Thyroid gland as a child development conductor

The thyroid gland plays an important role in the process.   child development. It produces thyroid hormones that affect metabolic processes, growth and puberty. However, for the adequate synthesis of these hormones, sufficient iodine intake from the external environment (with drinking water, food) is necessary. The problem of thyroid health is relevant for modern Russia, since the majority of the country’s population lives in regions with a deficit of natural iodine.

There are two main groups of thyroid pathology associated with its function: hypothyroidism (insufficient production of thyroid hormones) and hyperthyroidism (excessive production of thyroid hormones).

Hypothyroidism in a child is critical for irreversible effects.

You should know that hypothyroidism in children has more serious consequences than in adults. Symptoms of the disease manifest in the process of child development. For example, attention is drawn to the delay in physical and mental development, excessive drowsiness, lethargy, weakness, growth retardation, weight gain (although the weight can be partially compensated by tissue edema), lethargy.

In mild cases, poor learning ability, memory loss and fatigue may occur. The progression of the disease adversely affects the entire body, especially the central nervous system suffers. The critical lack of iodine as the main building substrate of hormones leads to mental retardation, cretinism, dwarfism, underdevelopment of the sex glands, impaired hearing and speech.

When is acquired hypothyroidism detected? In violation of the secretion of the hormone plays a role not only a lack of iodine in the diet of baby food, but also damage to the gland due to radiation to the head, neck and chest, as well as surgery on the organ. Inflammatory processes in the gland may play a role.

When do they talk about congenital hypothyroidism? Congenital pathology of the thyroid gland is diagnosed in the case of an organ hypo- or aplasia (a defect that is a decrease or complete absence of the organ) or as a result of a genetic breakdown – with a defect of specific enzymes that are involved in the production of hormones. In favorable cases, when the child has, albeit a diminished, but functioning gland (or in the case of hypothyroidism in the mother), immediate diagnosis after birth and timely provision of hormone replacement therapy will help the harmonious development of the baby. Relentless statistics show: cretinism is diagnosed in a newborn baby out of 4,000. If you think about it, this is a very big number.

Diagnosis of reducing thyroid function

According to Volovac   Marina   Yakovlevna, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist (First Moscow State Medical University named after I. M. Sechenov), “symptoms of hypothyroidism   so numerous, uncertain and variable that it is necessary to assert precisely about its presence only on the basis of data from hormonal studies. The main thing is to conduct the examination in a timely manner and prescribe adequate supportive therapy. ”

In pediatric practice, diagnosis   hypothyroidism   is required. For these purposes, the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone – TSH (pituitary hormone, which regulates the production of thyroid hormones) is detected. Elevated levels of TSH may indicate a decrease in thyroid function. The complex of the survey also includes the direct determination of thyroid hormones, antibodies to the thyroid gland and ultrasound of the thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism Treatment and Prevention

To prevent the progression of the disease, treatment of congenital forms of hypothyroidism must begin in the first week of life. Substitution therapy is carried out with a drug that is a synthetic analogue of the thyroid hormone (eutirox, L-thyroxin). At the first time of the appointment of the drug repeated blood tests for hormones and correction according to the results of laboratory studies. In addition, the refinement of the dosage produced by the clinical picture. Subsequently, therapy is carried out for life.

To prevent future mothers, it is necessary to additionally take a sufficient amount of iodine with food (iodized salt) and drugs (iodomarin), diagnose thyroid insufficiency in the early stages.

Hyperthyroidism in children

The opposite situation is a violation of the synthesis of thyroid hormones – this is hyperthyroidism, an increased function of the thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism can be an independent disease or a transient condition associated with an overdose of synthetic thyroid hormones.

In newborns, transient hyperthyroidism sometimes occurs: it is connected with the fact that part of the immunoglobulins that stimulate the thyroid gland is transmitted from the mother through the placenta, especially if the mother had a pregnancy with hyperthyroidism. In most cases, this condition is resolved by the third month of life.

The clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism include: increased irritability, sweating, tachycardia (increased heart rate), weight loss, fever.

Diagnosis of the disease is basically not different from that in hypothyroidism.

Treatment can be medication (tyrosol, mercazole) and surgical (thyroidectomy). Also used radioiodine therapy (alternative to surgical treatment, drug destruction of the thyroid gland).

“Neighbors” of the thyroid gland

Referring to the thyroid gland, it is necessary to recall the parathyroid glands in its immediate vicinity. Parathyroid hormone produced by these tiny glands plays an important role in the regulation of calcium metabolism. Hyper-or hyposecretion of parathyroid hormone is extremely rare, but the clinical picture is very memorable.

Due to thyroid surgery, the parathyroid glands can be damaged or even completely removed. In this case, there will be signs of hypocalcemia: tetany (bouts of generalized convulsive contractions), increased convulsive readiness, and a disturbance of the background of the mood.

Hyperparathyroidism may occur due to proliferation of parathyroid tissue. Raising the level of parathyroid hormone will explain the appearance of indomitable thirst (“a child can drink a jug of water at night”) and pathological bone fractures, which have become unusually fragile.

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