Diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation of papillary thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma occupies a leading position among malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland. It is formed from cyst -like areas of the organ tissue.

This type of cancer responds well to treatment even in advanced condition. Oncologists even have a wish-saying that if you have already received oncology, then let it be papillary thyroid cancer. But, despite the jokes of doctors, the patient is still interested in how long they live after treatment, how the operation and further rehabilitation go.

Risk group, symptoms

The degeneration of gland tissues occurs due to genetic anomalies, the unfavorable state of the environment – pollution with radioactive waste, the presence of harmful industries. Congenital forms are extremely rare.

The risk group includes the following categories:

  • age – from 30 to 50 years;
  • women, thyroid tumors are rare in men;
  • employees of hazardous industries;
  • medical staff associated with radiation and radiotherapy;
  • next of kin of patients with thyroid cancer.

The disease develops slowly, and if the production of thyroid hormones is not disturbed or the growing tumor does not begin to compress the surrounding tissues, then the patient may not suspect that he has thyroid cancer.

Symptoms of papillary carcinoma:

  • nodes in the tissues of the thyroid gland;
  • sore throat, signs of inflammation of the trachea;
  • difficulty swallowing – when squeezing nearby tissues;
  • signs of hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis in violation of the production of hormones by the gland.

Diagnostic measures

It is impossible to independently determine papillary thyroid cancer. The endocrinologist states only the fact of the presence of a neoplasm.

Plan of diagnostic measures:

  1. Examination and interview with a doctor.
  2. Thyroid hormone test to confirm or rule out hypo- or hyperthyroidism.
  3. Ultrasound to visualize the nodes, their size and determine the echogenicity of neoplasms.
  4. Fine needle biopsy of the nodes to determine the type of tumor – adenoma or carcinoma , and the type of cancer.

After the examination, the endocrinologist will give a referral to a special medical center dealing with issues of the thyroid gland and other organs of the endocrine system.

Surgery for papillary carcinoma

This type of cancer is treated exclusively with surgery. With severe thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism, conservative therapy is performed to normalize the hormonal status. After that, the surgical removal of a part of the gland or organ in full is shown.

Nodes less than 1 cm in diameter are not operated on, and the patient is under dynamic observation.

Types of surgery for papillary cancer:

  1. Complete resection of the organ and regional lymph nodes.
  2. Partial removal of an organ or lobe of the thyroid gland.

Surgery is performed under full anesthesia. Duration – from 1.5 to 2 hours. An incision is made on the front of the neck, the tissues of the gland are torn off and removed. Vessels are clamped to prevent bleeding. The incision is sutured in layers with a cosmetic suture. A drain is installed to drain the fluid. It will stand for a day, then it is removed.

There is an endoscopic technique for thyroidectomy . In this case, the organ is removed through skin punctures.

Preparation for the procedure:

  1. Hospitalization in a hospital.
  2. Delivery of general blood tests, urine, determination of the group and blood clotting, a cardiogram is performed.
  3. One week before the proposed intervention, stop taking blood thinners.
  4. For 12 hours before the intervention, it is forbidden to eat and drink. If the patient is thirsty, then it is allowed to rinse the mouth with water without swallowing.

Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you take on a regular basis.

Life after thyroid removal

This period is conditionally divided into 2 stages – being in the hospital and home care.

The patient stays in the hospital for 2 to 5 days. With signs of infection of the wound surface, a course of antibiotics is indicated. During this time, it is not recommended to take a shower or bath.

The patient experiences:

  • soreness in the suture area;
  • discomfort and pain when swallowing;
  • general weakness.

At home – peace, tranquility, lack of physical activity. Try not to wet the surgical suture, do not apply creams, lotions, perfumes on it. Start taking replacement therapy drugs – L-thyroxine or euthyrox .

2 months after surgery, according to indications, a course of radioactive iodine therapy is carried out. If the organ is not completely removed, then radiotherapy is not carried out.

After a course of rehabilitation, the patient can live a full life.

You are allowed:

  • cook on an open fire and gas stove;
  • sunbathe and swim in the sea;
  • massage of the collar zone;
  • any physiotherapy prescribed by a doctor;
  • women – to become pregnant and give birth while taking substitution therapy drugs. Papillary carcinoma is not an indication for abortion and delivery by caesarean section.

To prevent recurrence of the disease, 2 times a year, ultrasound of the thyroid gland is indicated. In addition, once every 3 months, the patient must donate blood for the determination of TSH – thyroid-stimulating hormone and TG – thyroglobulin .

Life expectancy after papillary carcinoma

The prognosis after the operation is favorable if all the recommendations of the endocrinologist surgeon are followed. Survival after papillary thyroid cancer is 95% over 25 years.

The patient’s condition is affected by:

  • the presence or absence of complications during thyroidectomy ;
  • the correctness of the dose of hormonal replacement therapy.

The risk of recurrence of the disease depends on the previous treatment. If no additional radioiodine therapy was performed , then in 30% of cases the disease returns, otherwise the probability of cancer returning is 10%.

Papillary thyroid cancer is not a sentence and not a painful long-term treatment. But to get rid of the pathology should be immediately after the diagnosis.

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