Common thyroid diseases

The thyroid gland is responsible for all types of internal metabolic processes, which emphasizes its exceptional role in the human body. However, many of us suffer from different types of thyroid pathology, without even knowing about it. Common diseases of the thyroid gland are masked by other ailments, sometimes manifested by symptoms of anxiety syndrome, are not diagnosed for a long time and, accordingly, are not treated. 

Most often, endocrinologists are faced with diseases of the thyroid gland caused by increased or decreased secretion of the organ. The risk group for thyroid diseases is mainly women.

Thyroid Diseases

One of the most common thyroid diseases is hyperthyroidism, a clinical syndrome resulting from its increased function. Causes of excess thyroid hormones:

· Bazedova’s disease (diffuse toxic goiter).

· Nodular toxic goiter.

Inflammatory and viral lesions of the body.

Autoimmune thyroiditis Hashimoto.

Adenoma (neoplasm) of the thyroid gland.

· Pituitary tumors.

The main clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism are an increase in the size of the gland, exophthalmos (beak-eyed eyes), and palpitations. These signs are described by K. Bazedov and make up the well-known classical triad. 

Other manifestations of thyroid disease:

– increased fatigue;

– irritability;

– frequent mood swings; 

– sleep disturbances or insomnia;

– decreased performance and constant fatigue;

– increased sweating;

– loss of body weight with increased appetite;

– trembling of the body (especially the upper limbs)

– tendency to diarrhea;

– decreased sex drive.

Women complain of irregular menstruation.

To diagnose hyperthyroidism, an examination and palpation of the thyroid gland are performed. Visually determine its increase. The size, condition of the gland tissue, the presence of seals or nodes is determined by ultrasound. The hormones triiodothyronine (TK) or thyroxine (T4) in the blood with hyperthyroidism exceed the norm. TSH hormone levels are lowered.

When scintigraphy is a research diagnostic method, which is based on the ability of the body to accumulate radioactive iodine, areas are identified that do not accumulate iodine and do not produce excess hormones, as well as areas with pathological secretion of hormones.

Thyroid Diseases

Hypothyroidism is a common thyroid disease caused by a decrease in its function. The reasons for the lack of thyroid hormones: chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; significant iodine deficiency in food; iatrogenic hypothyroidism (postoperative or drug).

The main clinical symptoms:

– general and periorbital swelling;

– pallor;

– masked face;

– decrease in motor activity;

– deterioration of memory and speech;

– lethargy, lethargy;

– lethargy, constant drowsiness.

Hypothyroidism is also manifested by a significant increase in weight, excessive dry skin, stiffness and hair loss, poor cold tolerance, heavy or irregular menstruation in women.

To diagnose hypothyroidism, an examination, ultrasound and laboratory tests are performed. The level of iron-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood test is higher than normal. The amount of T4 is abnormally reduced.

Methods of treating thyroid pathology include drug therapy, the use of radioactive iodine. In rare cases, surgical intervention is necessary.

Remember, the presence of symptoms of incomprehensible origin requires immediate contact with an endocrinologist! The timely detection of thyroid disease accelerates the treatment process and prevents the occurrence of possible complications.

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