What are alpha blockers and which ones are more effective

Alpha blockers are drugs that block the sensitivity of cell receptors to adrenaline. These receptors are located in all tissues of the body. Alpha- blockers have different areas and mechanisms of action. This provides an individual selection of drugs, taking into account the clinical picture, as well as the features of the therapy for each disease.

General mechanism of action of alpha- blockers

There are receptors in the heart and vascular walls that respond to the release of adrenaline and norepinephrine into the bloodstream. Alpha and beta blockers turn off the receptor response, preventing neurotransmitters from affecting the cardiovascular and other systems. When blocking adrenergic receptors occurs:

  • Expansion of blood vessels, leading to a decrease in blood pressure, a decrease in the load on the heart.
  • Reducing blood glucose levels by improving its absorption . The cells become more sensitive to insulin.
  • Narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi.

Such effects are inherent in all drugs in this group. Additional action depends on the type of drug, whether it belongs to an alpha or beta blocker.

Classification of drugs

There are two types of a-receptors – a1, a2. The drugs that affect them are called:

  • Alpha 1-blockers. They act on a1 receptors without affecting the a2 type. The second name is selective adrenergic blockers . Their effect expands the peripheral and internal vessels.
  • Alpha 2-blockers. Block a2-type receptors, which causes vasodilation, improved blood supply to the pelvic organs. Due to the effect on the vessels, the a2-blockers of the latest generation are not used in cardiology. They have found application in other areas.
  • A1 and a2 receptor blockers. They are called non-selective. They give a short-term effect of vasodilation and blood pressure normalization. Within an hour, due to blockage of type 2 receptors, the indicators return to normal.

Who are assigned and when prohibited

Means related to selective a1 adrenergic blockers are used to treat such pathologies:

  • Cardiovascular diseases, which are accompanied by an increase in blood pressure. A1 blockers reduce blood pressure for a period from several hours to a day. The dosage is calculated individually, as well as the medication schedule.
  • Hyperplasia of the prostate gland, as part of complex therapy. A1 adrenergic blockers cause relaxation of the smooth muscles of the prostate, which reduces the severity of pain.

A2 -type adrenergic blockers are used to treat diseases of the reproductive system, urinary tract. These medicines increase blood circulation in the pelvic organs.

Non-selective, acting on receptors a1, a1, are used in the treatment of the effects of stroke, as well as in ulcerative processes, impaired peripheral blood flow.

It is forbidden to use medicines if a person is diagnosed with:

  • allergy to the components of the drug;
  • liver failure caused by any diseases of this organ;
  • hypotension – low blood pressure;
  • pregnancy and the period of breastfeeding;
  • aortic stenosis and other heart defects;
  • bradycardia – slow heartbeat, in which the pulse is less than 60 per minute, but the intervals between heart beats are not disturbed;
  • asthma, obstructive pulmonary disease in the acute phase, occupational lung disease (pneumoconiosis, etc.). Medicines narrow the lumen of the bronchi; in people with diseased lungs, this leads to breathing disorders.

The first use of the drug is carried out under the supervision of a physician. This is necessary because of the individual response of each patient.

Depending on the person’s condition, after the first dose of the drug, the doctor may increase or decrease the dosage. You cannot change appointments on your own.

List of drugs – a- blockers

The list of drugs prescribed by doctors includes the following drugs:

CategoryActive ingredient and descriptionBrand name
A1 blockersDoxazosin . After ingestion, it quickly lowers blood pressure. It works for a long time, causes side effects less often than other drugs.Artesin , Doxazosin , Kardura , Omnik , Sonisin , Tulosin
Prazosin. Strongly lowers blood pressure, often used as the only therapy.Prazosin
Terazosin . In addition to reducing pressure, it affects the receptors of the genitourinary system. Prescribed for benign prostatic hyperplasia.Kornam, Setegis
A2 blockersYohimbine . Strengthens the blood supply to the urinary and reproductive systems. Reception leads to increased libido and normalization of potency.Yohimbine
A1-A2 blockersNicergoline . Long-term use partially or completely restores the cognitive functions. The effect is achieved by increasing blood circulation in the brain.Nicergoline , Sermion
Proproxan . Relieves itching, reduces the synthesis of tropic hormones. Normalizes high blood pressure.Proproxan

Side effects when taking

Some people experience side effects after taking alpha blockers. These include:

  • Violation of nervous activity. The person becomes sleepy or nervous, gets tired quickly.
  • A sharp decrease in pressure when changing body position. Leads to dizziness, fainting.
  • Increased heart rate, abnormal heart rhythm. Occurs in case of overdose, individual drug intolerance.
  • Malfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract. Vomiting, nausea, constipation, or diarrhea appear.

When they appear, it is necessary to consult a doctor in order to choose a medicine with a less pronounced negative effect.

Interaction with other drugs

In the treatment of cardiovascular and urological diseases, these drugs are combined with beta-blockers, diuretics (diuretics). Combinations of drugs and their dosages cannot be selected and changed independently – only as prescribed by a doctor.

It is forbidden to combine with calcium blockers. These funds also lead to vasodilation and pressure drop. When combined with adrenergic blockers, there is a too strong decrease in pressure, bradycardia, and possible cardiac arrest.

Before taking any alpha blockers, you must tell your doctor about all medications you are taking. Knowing this information, the physician will select a blocker that will not reduce the effectiveness of the treatment of other diseases, but at the same time cope with hypertension or other disease.

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