The most famous diseases of the thyroid gland

The human endocrine system regulates the coordinated work of the internal organs through the release of biologically active substances – hormones. One of the important parts of this system is the thyroid gland. When the disruption of the work of this formation in the body produces an excess or lack of hormones, as a result of which there are various changes in metabolic processes. To avoid the development of undesirable effects, it is necessary   to make an appointment with a doctor   (by phone or h Erez Internet) and treat thyroid disorders immediately after diagnosis.

What is the thyroid gland for?

The thyroid gland is a small education in the form of a butterfly weighing up to 26 grams, which is located in the neck right under the larynx, covering the trachea. This organ is responsible for the capture of iodine and the synthesis of biologically active substances thyroxine and triiodothyronine.   Thyroid directly related to the pituitary gland: it produces a thyroid-stimulating hormone that stimulates the gland. These biologically active substances affect all body tissues and stimulate metabolic processes in the human body. Also thyroxin and triiodothyronine are responsible for:

  • fever;
  • control the growth and development of the body;
  • the formation of protein molecules;
  • the thickness of the uterus mucosa (in the fair sex);
  • increase in heart rate

What diseases of the thyroid gland exist

Currently, there are many diseases of the thyroid gland, many of which can progress in the human body for a long time. The most common of them include:

  • Hypothyroidism

This disease is associated with insufficient production of hormones. Hypothyroidism is characterized by a slowdown of all metabolic processes occurring in the body. This is manifested by the formation of overweight, intolerance to low temperatures, lethargy, drowsiness, pain in muscles and joints, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract (constipation and flatulence).

  • Hyperthyroidism

This disease is the exact opposite of hypothyroidism: the thyroid gland produces an excess amount of hormones. Symptoms associated with hyperfunction of various organs and tissues predominate: an increase in gland size, sweating, feeling hot, an increase in heart rate, increased appetite, weight loss, hyperexcitability , frequent mood swings, disruptions in the menstrual cycle in women, impotence in the stronger sex.

  • Autoimmune thyroiditis

This disease is accompanied by inflammatory changes in the tissues, during which antibodies (protective proteins) to gland cells are formed. This causes a decrease in the level of hormones produced and compensatory growth of the body. Patients complain of difficulty swallowing, pain in the neck, the presence of nodules palpable under the skin.

  • Diffuse toxic goiter

Otherwise, this ailment is known as the Basedow’s disease: it is based on excessive secretion of hormones, which is carried out by the thyroid gland. The most well-known symptoms are the formation of goiter, exophthalmos (increased eyeballs), cardiac arrhythmias, weight loss, tremors, headaches, diarrhea, and the periodic appearance of edema.

  • Malignant and benign lesions

Among benign tumors, the most common is adenoma. It is accompanied by the appearance of nodular changes in the gland, and the synthesis of hormones is less often disturbed. The cancerous lesion of the organ has been encountered more and more often in recent years, however this ailment has no specific symptoms. It is rarely possible to reveal an increase in the size of the gland, cancer cachexia and minor intoxication.

Methods of diagnosis of pathologies: when to make an appointment with a doctor

If you see suspicious symptoms should not delay the visit to the clinic: an appointment with the doctor you need as can before. Some private clinics provide at quality services consultation by phone, but to undergo a full examination and determine whether the thyroid removal is required, the patient needs to personally get an appointment. For the diagnosis of various diseases using the following methods:

  • physical examination: examination and palpation of an organ provide information about its size and the presence of pathological formations;
  • assessment of thyroid hormone levels thyroxine and triiodothyroin , as well as thyroid stimulating hormone;
  • ultrasound examination of the organ (detection of tumors and structural disorders);
  • fine needle biopsy followed by cytological examination of the material (in case of suspected cancer);
  • computer and magnetic resonance imaging allow us to assess changes in the structure of the gland;
  • scintigraphy: this method is based on the introduction into the body of iodine radioisotopes that accumulate in the altered tissues (also used if thyroid cancer is suspected).

Is it always necessary to remove the thyroid gland?

Removal of the thyroid gland entails many unpleasant consequences: the patient will have to take hormone replacement therapy for life. Therefore, doctors try to carry out the most benign operations with partial preservation of the body. The indications for this kind of surgery are:

  • the presence of a malignant neoplasm;
  • problems with breathing and swallowing caused by compression of the neighboring organs by the gland;
  • diffuse toxic goiter.

Disease prevention

The operation to remove the thyroid gland is a rather difficult and dangerous procedure. To avoid such interventions, you need to adhere to certain recommendations. Prevention of endocrine diseases includes:

  • regular testing and examination by a doctor;
  • rejection of bad habits;
  • normalization of nutrition with the use of a sufficient amount of iodine;
  • the use of drugs only under the supervision of a specialist;
  • regular self-examination of the gland.

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