Symptoms and methods of effective treatment of hyperthyroidism

Such a pathological development of the thyroid gland, as hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, has several names – hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. The last name indicates some kind of “poisoning” of the body. With such a pathology, an excess of hormones produced by the thyroid gland is formed in the body. As a result, the intensity of metabolic processes increases significantly. At the same time, a person can constantly chew something, but the manifestation of appetite does not decrease and, oddly enough, the weight of such a patient does not increase, and may even decrease. In the body, undesirable changes in the performance of the cardiovascular, as well as the nervous system, are possible. Thermoregulation of the body is significantly impaired.

Causes of hyperfunction

What is thyroid hyperfunction is of interest to any patient who first encountered hyperthyroidism. However, it should be understood that thyrotoxicosis is not an independent disease. This is a collection of some syndromes that indicate certain diseases:

  1. Thyroiditis. Manifested with inflammation of the thyroid gland. In this case, too many hormones are released into the blood. Possible manifestation of both acute and latent, and postpartum forms of the disease. The chronic manifestation of the disease is autoimmune in nature and is the most frequent process of inflammation occurring in the thyroid gland. With this form of the disease, antibodies to various components of the gland are found in the blood.
  2. Graves’ disease . The same disease is called diffuse toxic goiter. It is a systemic autoimmune disease. It develops due to the fact that antibodies to TSH receptors (thyroid-stimulating hormone) begin to be produced. At the same time, the thyroid gland functions more actively.
  3. A variety of nodules in the thyroid gland contribute to the activation of hormone production, as a result of which hyperthyroidism also develops.
  4. Too much iodine. This is facilitated by excessive consumption of iodine-containing food or water. Also, this condition can be caused by the use of certain medications, for example, relieving arrhythmias or nutritional supplements that contain algae extract.
  5. Long-term use of hormonal drugs contributes to the occurrence of disruptions in the endocrine system. Interferon preparations taken for hepatitis C can also contribute to this manifestation.
  6. Hyperfunction can also manifest itself in diseases that are not directly related to the thyroid gland, for example, with neoplasms in the ovaries.
  7. Thyroid cancer.

Associated symptoms

The early stages of the development of thyrotoxicosis are characterized by mild symptoms. However, they are often similar to the manifestation of other diseases. An early stage can only be diagnosed after a blood test. However, it is precisely this fact that often leads to rather serious complications, up to disability.

With hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, an overgrowth of the organ itself develops. At the same time, at an early stage of the disease, even a doctor is not always able to detect a change in the size of an organ. But over time, significant pressure is felt in the throat, and over time, such a pathology becomes noticeable even when viewed from the side. Other manifestations of hyperfunction may be as follows:

  1. Disturbed by irritability and constant anxiety. There is nervousness and trembling of the hands, and sometimes of the whole body. Sleep disturbance occurs.
  2. Often there is an upset bowel (diarrhea).
  3. There are malfunctions in the work of the cardiovascular system – an accelerated heartbeat or arrhythmia.
  4. There is a general weakness, fatigue, splitting in the eyes, or sand is felt in them. Often there is spontaneous tearing.
  5. The condition of the skin undergoes changes – the skin peels off and becomes thinner. In this case, sweating often increases.
  6. While appetite is increased, rapid weight loss can occur.
  7. With diffuse toxic goiter, the eyes may protrude outward, the manifestation of swelling of the tissues around the eyes, it is impossible to completely close the eyelids. The movement of the eyeballs can cause pain.
  8. In men, potency is disturbed, and in women, the menstrual cycle changes.

Any of these conditions is cause for concern, but if you experience several symptoms from such a list, you need to see a doctor.


A correct diagnosis is required to perform adequate treatment. For this, an analysis is prescribed to determine the thyroid hormones. At the same time, free T4 and T3 are determined, as well as TSH. In addition, an ultrasound examination of the tissues of the thyroid gland is performed.

With hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, the main indicator is the level of TSH – it decreases. And the indicators of T4 and T3 can be both elevated and normal. In the case when a high level of hormones is determined, this indicates a clear hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, with their normal content in the blood, subclinical thyrotoxicosis is diagnosed.

With the help of ultrasound, it is possible to determine the presence of a modified structure of the tissues of the thyroid gland. Such a manifestation characterizes hyperfunction. In addition, ultrasound helps in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. During the study, indirect signs of pathology may appear. When they are detected, a puncture of the organ is prescribed. In order to make it possible to determine the nature of the disease, a study such as scintigraphy is performed.


Treatment of hyperthyroidism is performed based on the cause that caused the pathological process. The choice of treatment method also depends on the age of the patient, the stage at which the disease is located and the symptoms.

Methods for treating hyperthyroidism can be the following:

  • Taking antithyroid drugs. With the help of such medications, you can reduce the amount of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. These drugs do not have a negative effect on the body, however, when they are taken, a number of side effects are possible. Glucose is also prescribed, and measures are taken to prevent dehydration, as well as lowering the overall body temperature. In this regard, self-administration of such drugs or changing their doses is not recommended.
  • The use of radioactive iodine. Once in the gland, such an irradiated substance damages the overactive cells of the organ. After a certain time, they die off and, together with the excess drug, are excreted from the body. The full course of such therapy is about a month. If necessary, it can be repeated. However, with this method, hypothyroidism may occur – an insufficiency of hormones produced. In order to continue to feel constantly normal, a constant intake of hormonal drugs is required. This treatment is not used during pregnancy.
  • Operative treatment. Performing surgery is a last resort. It is used in the absence of positive results during drug treatment or when neoplasms are detected.

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