Causes and symptoms of acquired hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a condition characterized by a persistent decrease in thyroid function, which occurs due to low levels of thyroid hormones and the resulting clinical and metabolic disorders. Deficiency in the body of thyroid hormones causes a slowdown in all basic functions, with the exception of the thyroid-stimulating function of the pituitary gland, which increases significantly. Hypothyroidism is congenital and acquired. The acquired memory and intelligence of a person significantly suffer from acquired hypothyroidism, but these changes depend on the duration of the disease. Hypothyroidism often affects the weaker sex, and according to statistics, every woman over 65 has signs of hypothyroidism.  

Causes of Hypothyroidism

The acquired form of hypothyroidism occupies more than 90% of cases of this disease. There are many reasons for the development of hypothyroidism.

The first reason is damage to the thyroid gland. Acquired pathology leads to a decrease in the thyroid gland and a decrease in its functions in producing the necessary amount of hormones. Damage to the thyroid gland can occur with infectious diseases, after radiation and chemotherapy, after operations to remove part of the thyroid gland and with its tumor.

The second reason for acquired hypothyroidism is iodine deficiency in the body as a result of its insufficient intake. This condition occurs in people living in places remote from the sea or as a result of malnutrition.

The third reason for acquired hypothyroidism is damage to the brain and its structures, which are responsible for the thyroid gland, which also leads to iodine deficiency in the body. Hypothyroidism in this case occurs after head injuries, with infectious diseases of the brain or its tumors.

And the fourth reason for acquired hypothyroidism is the inherent resistance of the body to the perception of thyroid hormones, in which the thyroid gland works great and secrete a sufficient amount of hormones, but they are not absorbed by the body due to pathology.

Symptoms of Acquired Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism manifests itself in a rather diverse way, but in a pronounced form there are certain symptoms that patients usually complain about. The most important signs of hypothyroidism are lethargy and increased fatigue. Patients with hypothyroidism are inhibited, constantly drawn to sleep, and no matter how much time they give up sleep, they still continue to quickly get tired. Memory in a short time is significantly deteriorating, the language begins to weave.

The face and limbs of the patient with congenital hypothyroidism swell, the skin becomes dry, pale, with a yellowish tint, especially the skin of the elbows and heels. Such changes are associated with insufficient production of sebaceous and sweat glands.

Due to the fact that the vocal cords swell, the patient’s voice becomes hoarse constantly or wheezes at the slightest excitement.

Nails and hair become brittle – hair can begin to fall out in large quantities, and nails are very flaky and even torn.

Body temperature and blood pressure are usually low. Although in 15% of cases, patients have arterial hypertension. 

The heart rate of patients with hypothyroidism is reduced to less than 55 beats per minute, and tachycardia may begin to develop with prolonged absence of treatment. Women often have acne on the face and back.

Other symptoms of acquired hypothyroidism include:

  • violation of smell and taste;
  • thickening of the limbs;
  • difficulty in nasal breathing due to swelling of the mucous membranes;
  • puffiness of the face;
  • speech slowness;
  • the formation of nodular goiter;

If you find all or many of the listed signs of the disease, you should immediately contact an endocrinologist who will prescribe a competent treatment for hypothyroidism.

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