Sarcoidosis of lungs
Sarcoidosis of the lung is a disease that belongs to the group of systemic granulomatosis of a benign nature. Sarcoidosis of the lungs, the symptoms of which are experienced mainly by young people and the average age (within 20-40 years), is mainly a disease that occurs among women of this age group.
Disease when it is concentrated in the lungs has an external resemblance to tuberculosis due to the formation of sarcoid granulomas that merge into small and large foci. Due to their accumulation, the functions of the lung function are disrupted, which forms the corresponding manifestations of the symptoms of sarcoidosis. The outcome of the disease can have two options: complete resorption of granulomas or changes in the fibrous nature of the lungs affected by it.
The etiology of the disease (that is, the causes that provoked it) is not completely clear, moreover, none of the theories available to date allows us to obtain a reliable picture of the nature of its origin. So, for example, adherents of the infectious theory adhere to the idea that the causative agents of sarcoidosis of the lungs are fungi, microbacteria, spirochetes, protozoa, histoplasm or other microorganisms buy ventolin online.
Meanwhile, some of the data obtained from a series of studies on the scale of the family manifestation of this disease indicate that sarcoidosis of the lung, like sarcoidosis in its other forms, has a genetic origin. Modern researchers also put forward their own version, which is based on the violations that arise in the body's immune response to the impact of endogenous (autoimmune type) or exogenous (dust, bacteria, viruses, chemicals) characters.
Accordingly, based on such statements, the picture of lung sarcoidosis can be based on the action of immune, biochemical, morphological and genetic aspects. A particular point deserves and representatives of a number of professions, most susceptible to this disease by the results of ongoing research. This includes, in particular, workers in agriculture and chemical industries, seamen and health workers, postal workers and firefighters. The reason for this is the particular infectious and toxic effects exerted on these individuals. Smokers are also at risk.
First of all, let us note that pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by multiorgan flow. Its onset is a lesion that occurs in the alveolar tissue, followed by the subsequent development of the alveolitis or interstitial pneumonitis. Then the process is characterized by the formation of sarcoid granulomas, which are formed in the peribronchial and subpleural tissues, including in the field of interlobar furrows.
As we have already noted, later granulomas either are resorbed, or fibrous changes, which provokes their transformation into a vitreous mass. Progression of the disease leads to severe abnormalities arising in the ventilation function. Squeezing the walls of the bronchi with lymph nodes can lead to obstructive disorders, and in some cases also
The most frequent complications of pulmonary sarcoidosis are expressed in etiemia, respiratory failure, broncho-obstructive syndrome, as well as in the pulmonary heart (enlargement and enlargement in the right heart, triggered by increased arterial blood pressure due to the development of the disease in question).
In some cases against the background of pulmonary sarcoidosis, aspergillosis, tuberculosis and other types of nonspecific infections are observed. Due to fibrosis of granulomas, about 10% of patients are confronted with diffuse interstitial pneumosclerosis, which can provoke changes up to the formation of a "cellular" lung.
In acute course pulmonary sarcoidosis provokes changes at the level of laboratory indicators in the blood, which makes it possible to ascertain the presence of an inflammatory process. Characteristic changes in the lungs due to sarcoidosis are also revealed during X-rays, as well as with MRI and CT of the lungs. Recent studies identify, in particular, increases in the area of lymph nodes, focal dissemination, etc.
More than half of the patients have a positive Kveim reaction, which manifests itself in the formation of a purplish-red nodule with the introduction of a certain amount of antigen. Bronchoscopy and biopsy can detect direct and indirect signs of pulmonary sarcoidosis in the form of vasodilation in the region of the lobes of the lobar bronchi and other characteristic manifestations.
The most informative method for diagnosing is a histological examination performed on a biopsy specimen taken with bronchoscopy, an open pulmonary biopsy, a transthorcal puncture, or a pre-stained biopsy.
First of all, to determine the specific prognosis, as well as the specific treatment based on it, over the period of 6-8 months, a dynamic observation is established. Treatment intervention is required in the case of a severe and active course of pulmonary sarcoidosis, as well as its generalized or combined form, the presence of lesions in the intrathoracic nodes, dissemination of pulmonary tissue of a pronounced nature.
Direct treatment of such a disease as sarcoidosis of the lungs, the symptoms of which can have a different character of expression, is of a lengthy nature, again making up about 6-8 months. In its process, steroid and anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidants and immunosuppressants are used. As for dispensary registration, in case of favorable development of the disease, it lasts for two years, and with a more severe picture of the disease, the duration of this period can be up to five years, after which patients are removed from the register.
Diagnosis and identification of specific research measures and appropriate course of treatment based on the results obtained is performed by a pulmonologist, which should be consulted in case of suspicion of the disease and with the indicated symptoms characteristic of it.