Late complications of diabetes mellitus
The development of these complications is more typical for the late period of diabetes mellitus. Usually they begin to manifest themselves in about 15-20 years from the time of the onset of the underlying disease.
These lesions never start suddenly; The lesions begin to make themselves felt gradually. Threats to human life they do not carry. It is extremely important that these complications of diabetes in children do not develop, since they are typical for the second type of disease buy januvia online.
The glucose plays an important role in the pathogenesis of their development. Normally it is used by the body as an energy substrate. With the development of the same complications, the substance provokes the processes of destruction in tissues and organs, thereby inducing a specific clinic.
They usually touch the vascular bed and the nervous system. Vascular disorders manifest themselves in the form of retinopathy, angiopathy and diabetic foot. Nerves are affected mainly in the development of polyneuropathy. How do the above states proceed, and what is their danger to man?
Vascular disorders. The walls of the vascular bed need glucose for the normal course of all reactions. If glucose is in excess, it can begin to be deposited on the walls of the vessels, increasing their permeability, making them thinner and brittle. At the same time, conditions are created for the development of atherosclerotic lesion.
The microcirculatory bed is most affected. The first signs of lesions of small vessels can be detected by examining the retina of the eye. There are signs of hypertension in the microcirculatory bed (vasoconstriction of the retina, swelling). Over time, a complete detachment can occur, leading to blindness.
Diabetic foot is a special case of angiopathy. It is characterized by a narrowing of the arteries and veins, a decrease in blood flow along them. The foot becomes cold to the touch, the pulse wave on the arteries is poorly carried out. Because of circulatory disorders, ulcers and necrotic lesions begin to develop, eventually resulting in amputation of the foot.
Polineuropathy. Severe disease, characterized by a violation of the sensitivity of all groups of nerves (mainly affected limbs). The decrease in sensations proceeds according to the type of "stocking" and "gloves": the process begins with stops and brushes, gradually passes to the entire limb. Develops because of direct damage to glucose nerve trunks of the limb.
The main symptoms of the disease, in addition to anesthesia and paresthesia, is a burning sensation that usually occurs at night. Because of the decrease in sensitivity and pain threshold, the number of injuries increases (patients do not feel the pain that would be felt in the normal state of the nerves). The presence of all these symptoms indicates the development of a nerve complication of diabetes.
Treatment is recommended to be carried out in a complex way, including not only metabolic correction of the disease, but also physiotherapy procedures. Therapy is quite long, and any bias in the diet or taking medication leads to its aggravation.
Chronic complications. Even in spite of ongoing treatment and compliance with all medical prescriptions, diabetes irreversibly leads to the development of permanent complications affecting all organs and systems. The process is irreversible, and its treatment only suspends a little. Chronic complications of diabetes affect mainly well-vascularized organs, such as the heart, kidneys, skin and nervous system.
The defeat of the cardiovascular system is manifested in the development of coronary heart disease, heart attacks. Over time, chronic heart failure develops, which further exacerbates the condition.
Kidneys lose the ability to normal filtration, which is why the amount of albumin released increases in the urine. This leads, first, to the appearance of hypoproteinemic edema, and secondly, to renal failure. Most often, this pathology is typical for complications of type 1 diabetes.
Skin is characterized by the development of trophic ulcers and necrosis. The lesions of the nervous system are represented by paralysis, metabolic encephalopathy.
Preventing the development of complications. To prevent these complications of diabetes mellitus, their prevention should always be and be in the first place among the patient's priorities. Daily monitoring of the glucose level in the blood is mandatory. This helps prevent hypo- and hyper-glycemic coma.
The intake of insulin should be given daily, according to the schedule. In no case should they miss their injection or inject the entire dose if it is divided into several doses.
Proper nutrition also underlies prevention of complications. Dysfunction in the diet most often provokes their development. If the condition has been started and the listed complications of diabetes mellitus have developed, prophylaxis can be useless, and the qualified help of doctors will be required.
The main thing in the treatment of diabetes is a conscious attitude to yourself and the treatment you are taking. Only in this case it will be possible to live with this disease without worrying about the consequences.