Today more and more often you can find references to a problem that concerns the health of a large category of people – these are thyroid diseases. You may not even realize that there are any deviations in her work. There are several varieties of this disease, and not all of them have external signs. The thyroid gland can both increase, then goiter appears, and not manifest itself.
Causes of Thyroid Disease
Despite its small size, it is a very important organ that produces hormones without which the body cannot fully function. The thyroid gland is located on the neck and has the shape of a butterfly. Thyroxine is the hormone that it produces. Its level depends on how well another hormone, triiodothyronine, functions. It is produced by the pituitary gland.
According to statistics, most often the reason why the thyroid gland ceases to function normally is the lack of iodine. This is due to the fact that the population of most regions of Russia consumes few products containing this trace element.
If this happens, then the thyroid gland begins to change, the number of cells increases, the tissue grows and a swelling on the neck is visually visible. It can be evenly distributed or can only be viewed from one side.
Another reason for the occurrence of this disease is autoimmune disorders and inflammatory processes in the body. Separately, it is worth mentioning rare thyroid diseases and malignant tumors.
Thyroid gland and types of diseases
There are several types of disease:
- autoimmune thyroiditis;
- bazedova disease.
There is no age limit for this disease, symptoms can appear both during puberty and during menopause. The state of the thyroid gland and its activity also affects ovulation, so temporary infertility can occur with violations. The birth of a child can provoke deviations in her work – they occur in 7% of women. Symptoms are similar to those observed during menopause, so it is important to accurately diagnose the disease and begin treatment of the thyroid gland. Patients develop depression, nails and hair become brittle. Properly selected dose will help alleviate the condition of the patient.
Hyperthyroidism is caused by increased activity of the thyroid gland, it produces an excessive amount of hormones, which is reflected in the metabolism, a person is rapidly losing weight. Hormones are distributed uncontrollably throughout the body and affect it not in the best way. It is women who suffer from thyroid diseases most often, and the reasons for this are still unknown.
The situation, when more hormones are produced than required, is sometimes of an autoimmune nature. A person may suffer from various manifestations of this disease, and may be ignorant that he is sick. In this case, the following symptoms are observed:
- menstruation delays;
- weight loss;
- fragility of nails and hair loss;
- sleep disturbance.
With hypothyroidism, a sufficient amount of hormones is not produced, and metabolic processes in the body slow down. This leads to the fact that the woman is recovering, and regardless of nutrition and whether she follows a diet. The disease can occur after surgery, with inflammatory processes in the body, with the uncontrolled use of medications. Severe symptoms are preceded by the following symptoms:
- dry skin;
- coarsening of the skin and dry hair;
- body weight increases;
- problems in the intimate sphere.
I must say that the diagnosis in some cases is difficult, especially for middle-aged people. The fact is that in young patients, symptoms are usually pronounced, and they go to the doctor with complaints. In middle and old age, most often, patients do not pay attention to minor changes, do not carry out treatment of the thyroid gland, and the disease progresses. If there are suspicions, then to detect a change in the size of the gland, a neck examination with the fingers is carried out. If this is not enough, then they are sent for an ultrasound scan, blood tests are prescribed. Ultrasound will determine the size of nodular formations, their density, since it can also be cysts filled with fluid. It is important to accurately describe all, even, at first glance, minor complaints, since the doctor should have a general picture of the patient’s condition, only then treatment of the thyroid gland will be effective.
Prevention will help reduce the chances of getting sick. You need to correctly calculate your diet, eat balanced, especially if a woman is expecting a baby. This indicator is also important for adolescents. Taking iodine-containing substances can only harm those with a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, so you need to accurately establish the diagnosis. If there are those in the family who have had problems with the thyroid gland, then you should regularly undergo an examination. It is necessary to establish exactly what deviations in the work of this organ important for the body are observed, only then can it be guaranteed that treatment of the thyroid gland will be successful.
If you prescribe drugs that increase the amount of iodine in the body, this will aggravate the situation if the patient has hyperthyroidism. Only a professional doctor is able to determine the degree of disturbance and which drugs are necessary for the patient. If the nodes reached 1 cm, then constant monitoring is required. Nodes can be “hot”: they do not degenerate a malignant tumor. “Cold” are the most dangerous, as it is they that cause anxiety in the attending physician, because they can be malignant. Their presence requires additional studies, respectively, usually a biopsy is prescribed.