Thyroid adenoma is a fairly common pathological condition in which a conditionally benign tumor forms in the tissues of this organ. Such a neoplasm is surrounded by a capsule and is prone to independent growth and functioning. In most cases, this disease with a properly selected treatment has a favorable prognosis. However, there is a small chance that the resulting tumor can be transformed into a malignant process.
According to various data, to share adenomas thyroid accounts for forty five to seventy five percent of all tumor neoplasms of this organ. Such a pathological process can develop absolutely in any age group. However, it is most often diagnosed in people between the ages of forty-five and fifty-five. It is interesting that women face this disease almost four times more often than men.
At present, the question of why a thyroid adenoma occurs is still open. It is assumed that people at risk of developing this disease live in areas with a low level of natural iodine, have a nodular euthyroid goiter, and hereditary predisposition. It is not excluded that the tumor in the area of the thyroid gland may be caused by traumatic effects on the neck and various autoimmune disorders.
As a rule, thyroid adenoma is solitary. Its feature is extremely slow development, which may take several years. At first, such a tumor does not lead to disruption of the hormonal balance in the body. However, as this pathology progresses further, there is a decrease in the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone. That part of the thyroid gland, which was not affected, subjected to atrophic changes, due to which its functional activity is lost.
Classification of thyroid adenoma
The classification of adenoma of the thyroid gland includes several of its forms, distinguished on the basis of morphological features. These include follicular, papillary, functioning and oxyphilic forms.
When the follicular form in the tissues of the thyroid gland, a knot is formed, which has a rounded shape and a densely elastic consistency. This form is diagnosed in about twenty percent of cases. Another feature is that the arisen nodal element is quite mobile.
The papillary form is characterized by the formation of a cystic cavity, inside of which papillae growths are defined. In addition, the cyst contains a small amount of liquid that has a brownish color.
The functioning form of this disease is also called toxic. She faces no more than ten percent of sick people. The essence of this tumor is that it leads to a significant increase in the production of triiodothyronine and thyroxine with a parallel decrease in the secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone.
On oxyphilous form saying that if there was a tumor of B-thyroid follicular cells. As a rule, it is distinguished by the most aggressive nature and more often than others it acquires a malignant course. According to various data, the frequency of malignant degeneration of an oxyphilic neoplasm is from ten to thirty-five percent.
Symptoms of adenoma of the thyroid gland
As a rule, such a disease for a long time is not accompanied by any symptoms. The clinical picture develops only if the tumor has reached a considerable size or has been transformed into a functioning form. Up to this point, the tumor is detected by chance during a palpation or ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland.
As the tumor grows, symptoms such as a change in the appearance of the neck and a disruption of the organs located near the thyroid gland occur. These violations are due to the fact that an enlarged neoplasm begins to have a squeezing effect. In this case, a sick person may complain of difficulty swallowing food, a sense of lack of air and a general oppressive feeling in the neck.
At the moment when the tumor becomes functional, symptoms that indicate the development of hyperthyroidism follow. These include the instability of the emotional state, causeless irritability, increased weakness and sweating. The patient draws attention to the fact that he quickly gets tired with any physical exertion, gradually loses body weight, although the diet has not changed, and he cannot sleep for a long time at night. Gradually join the various disorders of the cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tract.
Many people with increasing levels of thyroid hormones are experiencing problems with reproductive function.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
Diagnosis of this disease is primarily based on the accompanying clinical picture. Additional methods of examination use ultrasound diagnostics, thyroid gland scintigraphy, as well as fine-needle aspiration biopsy followed by a histology of the material obtained. From laboratory studies it is necessary to conduct a biochemical blood test and an assessment of the level of TSH, T3 and T4.
The main treatment for thyroid adenoma is surgery. Before the operation, it is necessary to bring the level of thyroid hormones back to normal. For this, thyreostatics are used . The volume of surgical intervention is chosen individually depending on the size of the tumor and its location.
Sometimes, if there are contraindications to surgery, a course of treatment with radioactive iodine can be prescribed.
Principles of prophylaxis
Talk about methods prophylaxis This pathological process is quite difficult. The only important point is the systematic completion of routine examinations for the earliest possible detection of tumors.